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Community Support During Disasters – A Review of Disaster Pattern And Their Management

Nepal is one of the most dangerous countries in the world due to its complex geophysical situation and poor socio-economic situation. The country has faced a variety of natural disasters: floods, landslides, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, lightning, glacial lake flooding, droughts, disease, snow, etc. In addition, it faces various types of natural disasters due to its harsh and steep topography, extreme weather events, and fragile geological conditions. Nepal’s vulnerability to disasters is associated with rapid population growth, and the development of unplanned and unplanned settlements.

Rural houses are mostly made of wood and thatched roofs and are therefore very fragile and most of them are very vulnerable to disasters such as fire hazard, earthquakes, landslides and floods. This disaster happens almost every year in one or the other part of the country.

Every year thousands of families become homeless due to natural calamities and most of these families are poor because they usually live in the affected areas due to the oppressive social economic conditions and caste system. It is clear that they are more vulnerable because they are in unplanned places in dangerous/hazardous area with minimal preventive measures (use of bad construction materials), indiscriminate use of land for agriculture and other activities.

Large parts of rural areas are often inhabited by low-income communities who depend on agriculture, livestock, daily wages, forest products, small business, and service for their livelihood. When disaster strikes, these highly vulnerable people are only dependent on external assistance (for a long time) in the absence of community safety nets and weak government infrastructure and support systems.

Types of natural and man-made hazards in Nepal, from the active database (table 1) maintained by MoHA, which covers a period of 45 years (1971 to 2015), tells us that there have been a total of 22,373 disaster events during this period. sign up. . This is an annual average of 500 disaster events.

Nepal was recognized by the World Bank in 2015 as one of the ‘hot’ countries in the world that is prone to extreme hazards and disasters. According to this, “Nepal is ranked 11th in the world in terms of earthquake risk, 30th in terms of floods and 4th in the risk of climate change disasters and out of 198 in ranks 20th among the countries of the world” (UNDP/BCPR, 2004). According to the “National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal 2009” of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA), Nepal loses about 1000 lives every year due to natural hazards, and the direct damage is about 1208 million people on average. Nepali pages of the year. Millions are spent each year nationally and internationally on disaster response activities, which involve many resources that would normally be allocated to grassroots national development efforts.

Nepal is one of the most dangerous countries in the world due to its complex geophysical situation and poor socio-economic situation. The country has faced a variety of natural disasters: floods, landslides, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, lightning, glacial lake flooding, droughts, disease, snow, etc. In addition, it faces various types of natural disasters due to its harsh and steep topography, extreme weather events, and fragile geological conditions.

The main research question is to analyze the community’s resilience against frequent natural and man-made disasters. This will make sense of:

a) the ways of resistance of the society in their families as a unit and

b) the preparedness measures they have and how they act when disaster strikes

The study will further investigate and analyze the patterns of disasters in the study area, the impact of past disasters on society and the landscape.

These activities will help to frame the project narrative that describes disaster patterns, impacts, community coping mechanisms, etc. preparation and mitigation measures

Until the 1970s, disasters were synonymous with natural hazards/events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and landslides. Disaster magnitude was calculated as a function of hazard magnitude. For example, earthquakes and hurricanes cannot be avoided; Therefore, the emphasis of national governments and the international community has been mainly on a reactive approach to responding to events (disasters) and in the best cases to prepare for them, assuming that disasters cannot be solved only by response. activities.

However, since the 1970s, and since the 2000s, especially following the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), it has been recognized that disasters are closely related to human development processes. Natural hazards such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes, however severe, irreversible, or unpredictable, are only to the extent that the community is not prepared to respond and is unable to withstand them (which reflects their poverty status) and because this is seriously affected. In other words, there is nothing natural in disaster; it is the result of human inaction or lack of appropriate action in development (World Bank).

Therefore, there is now a new paradigm shift that natural hazards themselves do not necessarily cause disasters. Natural hazards trigger catastrophic events, but for a hazard to become a disaster, it must affect vulnerable people. If one is less poor, or less imaginative, then a risk may still occur, but not necessarily a disaster. It is now known that disaster risks (physical, social and economic) are not managed (or mismanaged) for a long period of time leading to the occurrence of disasters. The likelihood that a disaster will occur or not will depend on whether those risks are adequately managed. Disasters are the consequences of unplanned and unplanned development. Even the occurrence of the recent climatic anomaly caused by global climate change is followed by human activities such as the release of uncontrollable and excessive greenhouse gases (CO2, methane … ). Looking at the disaster from this perspective, emergency management (response) itself is no longer a priority.

Because such disasters result from the accumulation of risks, conditions of vulnerability that often accumulate over time, and insufficient capacity or measures to mitigate potential damages. This is expressed in a simple empirical formula:

Disaster Risk: Hazard x Vulnerability

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Because little can be done to reduce the occurrence and severity of most natural hazards, action and planning should focus on reducing current and future vulnerabilities to damage and loss. This clearly shows that vulnerability reduction is the key to disaster risk reduction which should be addressed as an integral element in the program development phase. It should not be left for action by humanitarian actors after a disaster.

It is a concept used in an integrated approach to a disaster event in which the management cycle can be carried out through a series of activities/phases, each of which is responsible for or designed to address a specific type of intervention. Disaster risk management as an activity to cope with disasters can include any targeted actions before, during and after the occurrence of a disaster as a cycle with different stages, from preparation to response, from prevention, mitigation and preparedness through recovery and rehabilitation. Disaster risk management is important because of its ability to develop a holistic approach to disaster risk management and to demonstrate the relationship between disaster and development.

The relationship between disaster and development as a cycle reinforces the fact that disasters, while inevitable, can be managed with adequate planning and preparedness to respond. The disaster risk management cycle of prevention, mitigation and preparedness constitutes the development part, while the relief and recovery part of humanitarian aid depends on the preparedness of both types of efforts. Thus, the disaster risk management cycle consists of four phases: Prevention / Mitigation and Preparedness in the pre-disaster phase, and Response and Rehabilitation / Reconstruction in the post-disaster phase. Two phases for disaster risk management: pre-disaster and post-disaster phases are defined in the DRM Cycle.

Pre-Disaster Phase: It includes Risk Identification, Prevention, Mitigation, Adaptation and Preparedness measures to reduce disaster risks associated with potential hazards to prevent or reduce the negative impact on human and material losses caused by a disaster. are taken The purpose of preparedness is to prevent or reduce loss and damage during a disaster. Preparedness represents the post-disaster phase of the disaster risk management cycle

Post-Disaster Phase: It includes the Response, Recovery and Reconstruction activities undertaken in response to a disaster with the aim of achieving early recovery and rehabilitation of affected individuals and communities. Search and Rescue in Response; meeting the basic humanitarian needs of the affected communities and other humanitarian activities. Recovery begins after the immediate threat to human life has subsided. The immediate goal of recovery is to return the damaged area to a level of normality and a condition that should be better than before the disaster, according to the “Better Back” principle of humanitarian aid.

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