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Emergence of IT & ITES – Effect on the Labour Laws
India’s emergence as the 4th largest economy and also a contender for a seat in the United Nations Security Council is the result of the high speed of economic development achieved in the current phase of liberalization. Within fifteen years, India has been recognized as an IT hub, supplier of skilled manpower to the world, etc. It also regained its position as the spokeswoman for the developing world. On the other hand, India is poor in terms of human development. The development of social capital is insufficient and the worst part is its accessibility, as it remains confined to urban areas and the rural elite. For the majority of the population, hence those who used to form part of the Organized Sector workforce, the exit conditions could not be worse. The informality of work, the obsolescence of skills, the lack of formal social security have put them in a desperate situation.
A direct effect of informality is the deterioration of labor rights. The provisions of a large number of labor laws are not implemented. Adherence to basic labor standards remains good only on paper. The desire to get more FDI and pressure from MNCs has caused the government to ignore the violations. In addition, unions are divided along political lines. However, there are more activities in the non-dominant labor organizations, but then they have no influence on the policy levels. The reduction in the size of the workforce in the organized sector, coupled with the lack of government support against aggressive employers, has resulted in the size of the workforce not being enhanced by the benefits of statutory protection as well as the government’s labor welfare policies.
The available debates in the ITES-BPO sector in India strongly suggest that the sector is characterized by some “representational insecurity” or “voice-insecurity”. The near absence of trade unions or similar organizations in the sector, until recently, reflects this. A significant lack of institutions for collective bargaining and social dialogue, a scenario of poor implementation of the labor law and the strong tendency of companies to manage industrial relations on an individual basis, monitoring mechanisms with the help of technology, etc. combining job control or ‘the end of employee voice’.
The unfavorable profile of trade union activities in the Indian outsourcing sector, in the early stage of the industry, may be due to a number of reasons, including the unique profile of the workforce engaged in the sector, the atypical nature of work and organization. is work , the mobile nature of work and high rates of industry change. Problems related to the newness of professions in the sector (and thus, the lack of experience of the parties involved in solving problems) and so on. Some of these aspects are then elaborated in order to reach some conclusions about the organizational problems in the sector.
Business and technological innovation, like in particular web outsourcing, should not be done at the expense of labor, that is, pitting workers against workers everywhere and pushing back labor rights through a race to the bottom, ignoring universal basic labor. rights (freedom of association, collective bargaining, non-discrimination, non-use of forced labor and elimination of violent forms of child labor) and forgetting that the end and all economic development is the improvement of people’s lives. working people
The good turnover rates in the ITES sector, which is the highest in the industry, only goes to show that the occupiers of these ‘high-end’ jobs are finding their jobs difficult, boring and undesirable in the medium to long term. Good working conditions are a prerequisite for providing a good and reliable service. To make these jobs sustainable and reduce costly transactions, owners and managers of call centers, BPOs, software and IT companies as well as governments have to address human resource concerns and respect the basic rights of these employees to organize their unions. to build Elections and collective bargaining as defined in the relevant ILO Conventions.
It is also generally accepted that the lower level of unionism or collectivism among workers is closely related to the organization of work with the help of technology and the controls that are carried out in the sector. Work organizations and workplace interactions are already designed and implemented, leaving minimal scope for workers for any ‘unwanted’ socialization aimed at organizing or forming employee collectives. Employees have to work continuously and in their endless work after work, they do not find time for collective thinking and unionism. HR practices in the ITES-BPO sector indicate a changing paradigm of personnel management vis-à-vis the traditional manufacturing/service sectors. The task of disguising work as fun falls to Human Resources (HR) managers. They focus on many issues, ranging from hiring the right people to charting your career options to staffing.
Agreements between companies and unions at the national level should ensure the following:
o Job Security: Companies must immediately stop proposals to outsource, offshore or contract work that will lead to the forced dismissal of workers.
o Redeployment: Effective redeployment should be done to protect career value and working conditions.
o Labor Standards: Employers must follow all ILO core labor standards. These are especially the rights of organization and collective bargaining. In addition, we need mechanisms to monitor the parameters; trade unions and their global trade union federations should also be included.
ITES owners and managers, governments and relevant international organizations should consider adopting a global license. Identifying a universal agreement with provisions respecting minimum labor standards, basic labor relations rights, healthy and safe working conditions, working hours limits and employee representation to protect the interests of not only ITES employees, but also of the ITES industries themselves are also important. They are the key to stabilizing jobs in what is otherwise seen as a ‘transitional industry’.
From the above it is clear that due to many factors the penetration of trade unions in the Indian ITES-BPO sector has been minimal during the initial phase of the sector’s emergence and growth. However, one can say that this sector will be an area without unions in the coming years, which would be wrong. There are already organized collectives among BPO workers in different parts of the country.
Recent government announcements that all labor laws apply equally to the sector and ongoing efforts by the government to put in place an effective policy also suggest a more encouraging framework for healthy trade unionism in the sector. Therefore, the attitudes of various parties towards collectives in the sector are gradually changing and trade unions are increasingly seen as desirable institutions to improve workplace relations and social dialogue.
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