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Chemical Bonds

Chemical bonds are permanent attractive forces between atoms that allow chemical compounds to form. However, there are four types of chemical bonds including ionic, covalent, metallic and hydrogen bonds. An ionic bond occurs when the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, while the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion. As a result, there will be an attraction between those positive and negative ions, so we can conclude that ionic bonds usually form between a metal and a non-metal ion.

A covalent bond is formed as a result of atoms sharing their outermost electrons, called valence electrons, to stabilize with a noble gas electron configuration. The result of the formation of covalent bonds is a molecule. In a metallic bond, there are many unpaired electrons that act as glue and give the substance a certain structure. Those electrons don’t belong to a specific nucleus and so they can move freely, making metals hot and electrically good. Finally, hydrogen bonds are weak bonds between two molecules that result from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other. There are also different types of covalent bonds such as single, double and triple bonds. Single bonds are formed when only one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. Double covalent bonds are formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between related atoms. Triple covalent bonds are formed when three pairs of electrons are shared. An example of an ionic bond is the bond between magnesium and chlorine, magnesium being a metal and chlorine being a non-metal. The chloride ion has a negative charge and the magnesium ion has a charge of 2. This means that the two elements together will form an ionic compound.

An example of hydrogen bonds is between hydrogen and oxygen because the electrostatic force causes polar molecules to attract each other, it attracts both positive and negative poles. Hydrogen bonds are a type of force that form a special type of dipole-dipole attraction that occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to an electronegative atom such as oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine. The difference between ionic compounds and molecular compounds is that molecular compounds are formed between two non-metals and ionic compounds are formed between nonmetals and metals, molecular compounds can be solid, gas or any type of liquid and ionic compounds are based are always independent A similarity between ionic compounds and molecular compounds is that they both have multiple atoms forming a complex structure, and both involve bonding between valence electrons.

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