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Chemistry – Matter and the Divisions of Matter

Matter is all the things around you. It is the food you eat, the air you breathe and the clothes you wear. Even you are made of matter. Therefore, you need to know the different types, forms and properties of the material.

Matter is anything that has mass and volume. Mass is the amount of inertness of matter and volume is the amount of space occupied by the matter. Impotence is resistance to change, and the greater the impotence, the greater its mass.

TABLE DIVISIONS

Substances are often divided into two categories: pure substances and compounds. It is important to be able to distinguish one form of matter from another so that you can explain the changes you observe.

Pure substances consists of a single material with a specific composition and specific properties. Pure substances are divided into two groups: elements and compounds.

Elements are the simplest forms of chemical substances and cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means. Examples would be hydrogen (H), sulfur (S) or gold (Au). The simplest form of an element is an atom.

Compounds are chemical combinations of elements that can be described by a chemical formula and can only be separated by chemical means. Examples of ingredients are water, sugar and salt. The simplest forms of compounds are molecules or formula units.

MIXTURES

Confusion is all around you. A salad of vegetables, a glass of soda is a mixture of water, sugar and flavor and air is a mixture of gases such as nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Physical mixtures of two or more substances with different compositions, different properties, and can be separated by ordinary physical processes. In general, mixtures are divided into two main groups: homogeneous and heterogeneous.

Homogeneous mixtures they are all one and when they are alone they are not separated from each other. Many homogeneous mixtures are solutions that consist of a solute and a solvent. A solvent is a substance that dissolves and a solute is a substance that causes dissolution. The solutions are fully decomposable and visible.

An alloy is a solution of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, the resulting substance having metallic properties. Alloys are often made to improve the properties of the elements that make them up. For example, steel is much stronger than iron, which is its main component.

A heterogeneous mixtures does not have a definite composition and separates into phases when left alone. Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated by the usual physical means. Examples of heterogeneous mixtures are blood, Italian salad dressing, and soda pop.

Another type of mixture is colloid. A colloid is a suspension that does not separate because the particles are not completely dissolved and suspended, causing the mixture to appear cloudy. This cloudiness, called the Tyndall effect, is due to the scattering of light by suspended particles.

The solution does not scatter light because the particles are at the molecular level and are too small to reflect light. However, the colloidal particles are large enough to reflect light and yet small enough not to settle. The scattering of light from car headlights in fog and the scattering of light by dust particles are examples of the Tyndall effect.

Colloids from all combinations of solids, liquids, or gases (except mixtures of unreacted gases which are perfect solutions). Aerosols, foams, emulsions and sols are different types of colloids. Examples of colloids are shaving cream, whipping cream and gelatin.

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