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Chemistry of Wastewater – The 5 Stages of Chemical Analysis of Wastewater

Understanding the chemistry of wastewater through titration is necessary to identify certain types of pollutants, especially metals and heavy metals. Such chemical analyzes of wastewater are carried out in stages. In the following paragraphs I have explained what these stages are.

1. Titrant

EthyleneDiamineTetraAcetic acid (N-CH2-CH2N) commonly known by its short form – EDTA is the most common titrant used during titration to understand wastewater chemistry. An alternative Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (H4y) is less soluble when used as EDTA while Tetraneutralized solution (Na4Y) offers a very alkaline solution because it is easily hydrolyzed. Therefore, Hexadentate (Na2H2y), which is a salt of EDTA, is used as a titrant. It is obtained as tetraacetic acid dehydrate. It is a disodium salt commonly known as Ethylenenintrilo represented by the formula C10H14O8N2Na2.2H2O.

The chemical composition of EDTA is HOOC.H2C -> CH2COOH with one of the divalent Mg or Ca. This is a chelated bond.

2. Signs

It is a substance that changes color to indicate complete chelation with EDTA. When using the above procedure, at pH 10.0 + 0.1, either Mg or Ca reacts with the indicator. This reaction causes the solution to turn a wine red color. If the solution already contains both Mg and Ca, and if EDTA is added, then it forms an EDTA chelate mixture that is very stable. In this reaction the EDTA consumes all the Mg and Ca, resulting in the solution turning blue, as free indicators are released that give a good indication of the chemistry of the wastewater. Below are two reactions:

H2R + Ca^++ (blue) -> CaR + 2H^+ (wine red)

CaR + Na2H2y (EDTA Salt) -> CaNa2y + H2R (Chelate – Blue)

3. Defined End Point

Mg ions must be present in the buffer for the assay to achieve a specific endpoint. Therefore, to accomplish this, a small amount of Mg salt (EDTA) is added. This salt is complexometrically neutral. As the pH of this buffer solution increases, it approaches a sharp end point. But another product of this increase in pH is the precipitation of either Mg(OH)2 or Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). If the pH increases further, then a yellow orange color is obtained.

4. Precipitation of CaCO3

If the titration process is allowed to continue, then it will cause CaCO3 to precipitate. So all the steps should be completed within five minutes. Evaporation of the solution can dilute the concentration of CaCO3, so it must be diluted before reagents are added to complete the titration.

5. Titration

Titrations are performed to understand the chemistry of wastewater. But the indicators used in the titration are affected by hot water. Therefore, it should always be done at room temperature.

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