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## How to Use MetaStock’s Reference Function

The MetaStock reference function is one of the most used functions, because it allows us to refer to the value of any expression, or selected ‘data array’, even if it is future or future periods.

It is important to note that if you use the reference function to refer to a future period it is obviously dynamic, meaning it can change. So be careful when using it in system tests, as it can produce misleading results.

MetaStock Syntax: Ref (Data series, Period)

Data array = The data array value that will be returned from ‘x’ number of times in the past.

Period = This specifies how many periods forward or backward to reference the data row value. A negative number will represent a value in the past, while a positive number will represent a value in the future.

Here’s how it would look in an example. The following formula describes yesterday’s closing price:

Ref(C,-1)

In the MetaStock formula above:

Data series = C

Period = -1

Here’s how you would use the formula in a more useful application of this example:

C> Ref(C,-1) AND Ref(C,-1)>Ref(C,-2)

This MetaStock formula states that the closing price of the current period should be above the closing price of the previous period; and the closing price from the previous period must be greater than the closing price from the period before that. In this example, we have used the closing price as the data set, but you can use almost any function or indicator.

Another common application of the reference function is to accurately define peaks and troughs, without using the peak and trough functions within MetaStock. A simple definition of a peak is a bar that has had 2 previous periods with lower highs and 2 subsequent periods with lower highs. Using the reference function, we can correctly code as follows:

H>Ref(H,-1) AND Ref(H,-1)>Ref(H,-2) AND H>Ref(H,1) AND Ref(H,1)>Ref(H,2)

Note that since we are using a positive application of the Reference function (denoted by ‘H> REF(H,1)’), the signal only appears after the event has passed. In other words, you only know that a peak has occurred after it has occurred.

If you are new to the MetaStock formula then this may seem complicated or complicated but once you ‘get it’ you will understand why it is used by many professional traders.

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