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Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs

Eggs have been a staple in the human diet for thousands of years. From hunter-gatherers collecting eggs from wild bird nests, to bird domestication for more reliable access to egg supply, to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production facilities, eggs have long been recognized as a high-quality resource. proteins and other important elements.

Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many cuisines due to their many functional properties such as water absorption, emulsification and foaming. The egg is an autonomous and self-sufficient embryonic development chamber. At sufficient temperature, the developing embryo utilizes a wide range of essential nutrients in the egg for the growth and development of the egg. Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and functional nutrients are all available in sufficient quantity to make the transition from mature cell to newborn chick, and the nutritional needs of a bird species are as similar as those of humans to make an ideal egg. source of material for us. (One essential human nutrient that eggs do not contain is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), since non-passerine birds have active gulonolactone oxidase and synthesize ascorbic acid as needed.) This article discusses the various contributions of eggs to the diet. It describes people in a nutshell.

Macro and micro matter in eggs

The levels of many nutrients in an egg are affected by the age and breed or strain of the hen, as well as the season of the year and the composition of the feed provided to the hen. While most nutrient changes are minimal, the fatty acid composition of egg lipids can be significantly altered by changes in the hen’s diet. The exact amount of many vitamins and minerals in an egg is determined in part by the nutrients provided in the chicken’s diet. Chicken eggs contain 75.8% water, 12.6% protein, 9.9% lipids and 1.7% vitamins, minerals and a few carbohydrates. Eggs are classified as protein foods, and egg protein is one of the highest quality proteins available. Virtually all the lipids found in eggs are contained in the yolk, along with most of the vitamins and minerals. Of the small amount of carbohydrate (less than 1% by weight), half of it is found in the form of glycoproteins and the rest as free glucose.

Egg Protein

Egg proteins, which are distributed in both the yolk and the white (albumen), are nutritionally complete proteins that contain all the essential amino acids (EAA). Egg protein has a chemical score (the level of EAA in a protein food divided by the level in an ‘ideal’ protein food) of 100, a biological value (a measure of how efficiently dietary protein is converted into body tissue) of 94, and a Protein Efficiency Rating of the maximum (rate of weight gain with protein fed in young rats) of any dietary protein. The main proteins found in egg yolk are low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which comprises 65%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), phosvitin, and livetin. These proteins are present in a homogeneous emulsified liquid. Egg white consists of 40 types of proteins. Ovalbumin is the main protein (54%) along with ovotransferrin (12%) and ovomucoid (11%). Other proteins of interest are flavoprotein, which binds riboflavin, avidin, which can bind and inactivate biotin, and lysozyme, which has lytic activity against bacteria.

Egg Lipids

A large egg yolk contains 4.5 g of lipids, consisting of triacylglycerides (65%), phospholipids (31%), and cholesterol (4%). Of all phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the largest part and comprises 26%. Phosphatidylethanolamine contributes another 4%. The fatty acid composition of egg lipids depends on the fatty acid profile of the diet. The reported fatty acid profile of commercial eggs indicates that one large egg contains 1.55 g of saturated fatty acids, 1.91 g of monounsaturated fats, and 0.68 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Total fatty acids (4.14 g) is not equal to total lipid (4.5 g), because of the glycerol part of triacylglycerides and phospholipids and the phosphorylated parts of phospholipids). Eggs are reported to contain less than 0.05 g of trans-fatty acids. Egg yolks also contain cholesterol (211 mg per large egg) and the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin.

Egg vitamins

Eggs contain all the essential vitamins except vitamin C, as the developing chick does not need this vitamin from food. The yolk contains most of the water-soluble vitamins and 100% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Riboflavin and niacin are concentrated in albumen. Riboflavin in egg albumin is bound to flavoprotein in a ratio of 1:1. Eggs are one of the few natural sources of vitamins D and B12. Egg vitamin E levels can increase up to tenfold with dietary changes. While no single vitamin is found in a significantly higher amount than its DRI value, it is the broad spectrum of vitamins present that makes eggs nutritionally rich.

Egg Minerals

Eggs contain small amounts of all the minerals necessary for life. The iron found in egg yolks is especially important. A study evaluating iron and plasma transferrin saturation in children 6-12 months of age found that infants who consumed egg yolk had better iron status than infants who did not. Research has shown that egg yolk can be a source of iron in a weaning diet for breastfed and formula-fed infants without increasing blood antibodies to egg yolk proteins. Dietary iron absorption from a particular food is determined by iron status, heme- and non-heme-iron content, and the amounts of various dietary factors that affect iron absorption in the whole food. There is limited information about the net effect of these factors on egg iron bioavailability. In addition to iron, eggs contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Egg yolks also contain iodine (25 mg per large egg), and this can be doubled or tripled by including an iodine source in the diet. The selenium content of the egg can be increased up to nine times with dietary manipulations.

Egg Choline

Choline was established as an essential nutrient in 1999 with recommended daily intakes (RDI) of 550 mg for men and 450 mg for women. The RDI for choline increases during pregnancy and lactation due to the high rate of transfer of choline from mother to fetus and in breast milk. Animal studies show that choline plays a key role in brain development, especially in the development of memory centers in fetuses and newborns. Egg-yolk lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is an excellent source of dietary choline, with each large egg providing 125 mg of choline.

Egg Carotenes

Egg yolk contains two xanthophylls (carotenes that contain an alcohol group) that have important health benefits – lutein and zeaxanthin. It is estimated that one large egg contains 0.33 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin; however, the content of these xanthophylls is completely dependent on the type of feed provided to the chickens. Egg-yolk lutein levels can be increased up to tenfold by replacing the diet with marigold extract or purified lutein.

The sign of luteinþzeaxanthin content is yellow color; The darker the yellow-orange yolk, the higher the xanthophyll content. Studies have shown that egg-yolk xanthophylls have higher bioavailability than those from plant sources, possibly because the lipid matrix of the egg yolk facilitates absorption. This biological increase leads to a significant increase in plasma levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as an increase in macular pigment concentrations with egg consumption.

Egg cholesterol

Eggs are one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol, providing 215 mg per large egg. In the 1960s and 1970s the simplistic view that dietary cholesterol equated to blood cholesterol led to the belief that eggs were a major contributor to hypercholesterolemia and the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. While there is some controversy about the role of dietary cholesterol in determining blood cholesterol levels, most studies have shown that saturated fat, not dietary cholesterol, is the main dietary determinant of plasma cholesterol levels (and eggs contain 1.5 g of saturated fat ). and that neither dietary cholesterol nor egg consumption is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Across cultures, those countries with the highest egg consumption actually have the lowest death rates from heart disease, and population-based studies have shown no association between egg intake and plasma cholesterol levels or the incidence of heart disease. A 1999 study of 117,000 men and women followed for 8-14 years showed that the risk of coronary heart disease was the same whether the study subjects consumed less than one egg per week or more than one egg per day. Clinical studies show that dietary cholesterol has little effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Adding one egg a day to the diet increases, on average, total plasma cholesterol levels by about 5 mg dl_1 (0.13 mmol/L). However, it is important to note that the increase occurs both in the atherogenic LDL cholesterol fraction (4 mg dl_1 (0.10 mmol/L)) and in the antiatherogenic HDL cholesterol fraction (1 mg dl_1 (0.03 mmol/L), virtually no change in the LDL:HDL ratio, a major determinant of cardiovascular disease risk.The response of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol to egg consumption, particularly any change in the LDL:HDL ratio, varies by individual and cholesterol profile. of plasma core lipoprotein varies. Adding an egg a day to the diets of three hypothetical patients with different plasma lipid profiles has different effects on the LDL:HDL ratio. The effect is greater for the low-risk individual than for the high-risk individual. however in all cases the effect is numerically small and will have little effect on the cardiovascular risk profile.

Overall, the results of clinical studies show that eating eggs has little effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is consistent with the results of many epidemiological studies. A common consumer complaint is that eggs from certain types of birds have little or no cholesterol. For example, eggs from Araucana chickens, a South American breed that lays a blue-green egg, have been identified as low-cholesterol eggs when, in fact, the cholesterol content in these eggs is 25% higher than that of commercial eggs. The amount of cholesterol in an egg is determined by the needs of the embryo’s development and has proven to be very difficult to change significantly without the use of hypocholesterolemic drugs. In the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s, unwarranted concerns about the cholesterol content of eggs led to a steady decline in egg consumption, and limiting this important and inexpensive source of high-quality protein and other nutrients could have a negative impact on do good from many ‘at risk’ food populations. Egg production has increased over the past decade in North America, Central America, and Asia, remained relatively stable in South America and Africa, and declined in Europe and Oceania. Overall, the world’s per capita egg consumption has been increasing slowly over the past decade, in part due to changing attitudes about the health concerns of dietary cholesterol.

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