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Urine Analysis and Laboratory Tests

Urinalysis data are usually divided into two; qualitative and quantitative data of urine laboratory tests. As their name suggests, qualitative tests are tests of urine qualities such as color, clarity, etc., while quantitative tests try to find the amounts of certain indexes in urine such as volume, specific gravity, amount of pathological elements. urine (blood, protein, creatinine, etc.).

Quality data of urine laboratory tests

Color of urine

� On the first day of a child’s life, the urine is colorless

� On 2-4 days – it is black-red, because a large amount of Urea is released.

� In breastfed babies, the urine is almost colorless until they start drinking fruit juice and eating other foods at 4-6 months.

� In formula-fed babies, all children and adults, urine is straw-yellow.

Changes in urine color can be physiological. For instance;

� Colorless urine occurs when a person drinks a lot of fluids

� Urine acquires an orange color when food contains a lot of carotene (carrots);

� After eating red beets, the urine will be pink;

� Some medications affect the color of urine. SO, rifampicin causes red color of urine, analginum and sulfacylamides-pink, mitroxolinum-saffron-yellow.

In case of kidney diseases, certain coloration of urine has a diagnostic value:

� Dark-brown urine is a pathognomic symptom of viral hepatitis; the cause of this color is a large amount of bile pigments hyperbilirubinuria); The characteristic symptom is that after shaking the urine in this way a yellow foam is formed.

� Smoky brown urine, resembling tea or cola, occurs in nephron damage, when RBCs pass through the basal part of the glomerular capsule and lose hemoglobin. It is the main symptom of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

� Bright red color can be seen when “fresh” RBCs are passed in the urine in case of trauma, kidney tuberculosis, crystals, cystitis, urethritis, kidney tumor.

� Dark purple color change is a sign of significant hemolysis of RBC during poisoning, Rh conflict, errors during blood transfusion etc.

Transparency

Urine can become cloudy only in newborns 2-3 days after birth. After that, every healthy person passes clear urine. Dark gray and dark urine, pus or fat crystals, RBC or WBC, pus or oil can be seen in the urine.

Quantitative data of urine laboratory tests

Diuresis refers to the process of urine production. Urine volume (UV in 24 hours) is its laboratory reflection. Its meaning depends on the age.

Urinary pathological changes

� Polyuria is diagnosed when the amount of urine is 2 times or more than the normal range. It is usually a sign of diseases with other systems that reduce cardiac edema, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus). Renal policy develops in the case of renal edema regression, chronic renal failure.

� Oliguria refers to a daily decrease in urine output from age groups and below. Renal oliguria is one of the most important manifestations of kidney failure. There may also be extra-renal causes of Oliguria, such as excessive bleeding, diarrhea, poisoning, heart failure, shock. It is very important to identify the cause of Oliguria because the treatment plans can be very different when the amount of urine is reduced to 5% of the normal data or there is no urine during the whole day. It is one of the most dangerous conditions for children’s lives and requires immediate medical help.

� Anuria can occur

1. kidneys – kidneys do not produce urine due to a large damage to their tissues.

2. postrenal (mechanical) – Urine is produced, but does not flow into the bladder due to the upper urinary tract or due to obstruction of the bladder neck.

� Nocturia, the normal ratio of day and night urine is 2:1. This means that urine output is more intense during the day due to increased urination and physical activity. If the volume of urine at night is greater, it is a sign of decreased kidney function.

Ph of Urine

This symptom depends on age, eating habits, prescribed medications and varies from person to person as well as from person to person at different times.

Specific gravity

It is the accumulation of electrolytes and other substances that dissolve in the urine. Specific weight loss can be observed when drinking a lot of fluids, severe renal failure, development of edema regression, diabetes insipidus. The increase is observed in Oliguria, diabetes mellitus, excretion of a certain amount of protein. Excretion of 0.1 g of glucose per 11 urine leads to an increase in specific gravity of 0.004; 0.4 protein-on 0.001.

Urine analysis indices that deviate from the normal ones are indicative of metabolic disorders

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