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Managing the Income Portfolio

The reason people consider investment risks in the first place is to achieve a rate of return that can be achieved in a risk-free environment … ie, an FDIC insured bank account. Risk comes in many forms, but the primary concerns of the average investor are “credit” and “market” risk…especially when it comes to investing for income. Credit risk involves the ability of companies, government agencies, and even individuals to make good on their financial commitments; Market risk refers to the probability that there will be changes in the Market Value of the chosen security. We can reduce the former by choosing only high quality (investment grade) securities and the latter by diversifying, understanding that fluctuations in Market Value are normal, and having an action plan to deal with such fluctuations. (What does the bank do to get the amount of interest it guarantees to depositors? What does it do in response to higher or lower market interest rate expectations?)

You don’t need to be a professional Investment Manager to professionally manage your investment portfolio, but you do need to have a long-term plan and know something about Asset Allocation…an often misunderstood and almost is almost always used incorrectly. in the economic community. It’s also important to know, that you don’t need a fancy computer program or a fancy display with economic scenarios, inflation estimators, and stock market forecasts to properly align yourself with your goal. You need common sense, reasonable expectations, patience, discipline, soft hands, and tremendous drive. The KISS Principle should be at the core of your Investment Plan; Emphasis on Working Capital will help you organize, and control your investment portfolio.

Planning for retirement should focus on the additional income required from the investment portfolio, and the Asset Allocation formula. [relax, 8th grade math is plenty] The amount needed to reach the goal depends on only three variables: (1) the amount of investable assets you start with, (2) the amount of time until retirement, and (3) the current interest rate on the security. Investment grade available. . If you don’t let the “engineer” gene take control, this can be a very simple process. Even if you are young, you need to quit heavy smoking and develop more income… if you grow the income, the growth in Market Value (which you are expected to worship) will take care of itself. protect yourself Remember, a higher Market Value may increase the size of the hat, but it does not pay the bills.

First subtract any guaranteed retirement income from your retirement income goal to estimate the amount needed from the investment portfolio alone. Don’t worry about inflation at this stage. Next, determine the total Market Value of your investment portfolios, including corporate plans, IRAs, H-Bonds…everything, except houses, boats, jewelry, etc. Only liquid personal and retirement plan assets. This total is then multiplied by a range of reasonable interest rates (6%, up to 8% now) and, hopefully, one of the resulting numbers will be close to the target amount you came up with some time ago. If you’re within a few years of retirement age, that’s even better! Of course, this process will give you a clear idea of ​​where you stand, and that, in itself, is worth the effort.

Organizing a portfolio involves deciding on an appropriate allocation … and that requires some deliberation. Real Estate Investment is the most important and most misunderstood term in the investment lexicon. The most fundamental of the confusions is the idea that diversification and Estate Separation are one and the same. Asset Allocation divides the investment portfolio into two basic classes of investment securities: Stocks/Equities and Bonds/Income Securities. Most Investment Grade securities fit comfortably into one of these two classes. Diversification is a risk reduction technique that strictly controls the size of individual holdings as a percentage of total assets. A second objection describes Asset Allocation as a sophisticated technique to moderate the bottom line impact of movements in stock and bond prices, and/or a process that automatically (and foolishly) shifts investment dollars from a weaker asset allocation to a stronger one. A subtle “market timing” tool.

Finally, the Asset Allocation Formula is often misused in an attempt to turn a valid investment planning tool into speculative strategies that have no real merit in themselves, for example: annual portfolio transfers, market timing adjustments, and transfers to the Common Fund. The Equity Allocation Formula itself is sacred, and if done properly, cannot be changed by conditions in the Equity or Fixed Income markets. Changes in the investor’s personal circumstances, goals and objectives are the only matters that can be allowed in the Asset Allocation decision process.

Here are some basic Property Allocation Guidelines: (1) All Property Allocation decisions are based on the Cost of the securities involved. The current Market Value may be higher or lower and it just doesn’t matter. (2) Any investment portfolio with a Cost Base of $100,000 or more must have at least 30% invested in Income Securities, taxable or tax-free, depending on the nature of the portfolio. Tax-deferred entities (all types of retirement plans) should cover most Investments. This rule applies from age 0 to Retirement Age – 5 years. Under 30, it is a mistake to have too much of your portfolio in Income Securities. (3) There are only two Categories of Property Separation, and neither can be explained by a decimal. All money in the portfolio belongs to one category or the other. (4) From Retirement Age – 5 years onwards, Income Distribution must be adjusted upwards until the “reasonable interest rate test” says you are on target or at least within range. (5) At retirement, between 60% and 100% of your portfolio may be in Income Producing Securities.

Controlling, or Implementing the Investment Plan will be best done by the least emotional, most determined, naturally calm, patient, generally conservative (not politically) and self-activated individuals. Investing is a long-term, personal, targeted, non-competitive, hands-on, decision-making process that doesn’t require advanced degrees or a rocket scientist’s IQ. In fact, being too smart can be a problem if you have a tendency to overanalyze things. It’s helpful to set guidelines for choosing security, and eliminating them. For example, limit Equity exposure to Investment Grade, NYSE, dividend paying, leveraged, and broad-based companies. Don’t buy any stock until it’s down at least 20% from its 52-week high, and limit individual holdings to less than 5% of the total portfolio. Get as much profit as possible (use 10% as a target). With 40% Income Allocation, 40% of profits and dividends will be allocated to Income Securities.

For Fixed Income, focus on Investment Grade securities, which are above average but not “top in class.” With Variable Income securities, avoid buying near 52-week highs, and keep personal property holdings under 5%. Individual Preferred Stocks and Bonds also stay below 5%. Closed End Fund positions may be slightly higher than 5% depending on the type. Get a reasonable profit (more than one year’s income for starters) as soon as possible. With a 60% Equity Allocation, 60% of the profits and gains will be allocated to the shareholders.

Tracking Investment Performance the Wall Street way is inappropriate and problematic for target-oriented investors. It deliberately focuses on short-term deviations and uncontrollable cyclical changes, creating constant frustration and encouraging inappropriate communication responses to natural and harmless events. With a Media that thrives on sensationalizing anything oddly positive or negative (eg Google and Enron, Peter Lynch and Martha Stewart), it can be difficult to keep up with any plan as the environment changes. First greed, then fear, new products replacing old, and always the promise of something better when, in fact, the basic boring and old investment principles still work. Remember, your unhappiness is Wall Street’s most valuable asset. Don’t preach to them, and protect yourself. Base your performance evaluation efforts on goal achievement… yours, not theirs. Here’s how, based on the three primary goals we’ve been talking about: Growth in Basic Income, Profit Generation from Trading, and Overall Growth in Working Capital.

Basic Income includes dividends and interest generated by your portfolio, excluding capital gains which should often be a larger number. No matter how you slice it, your long-term comfort demands a steady increase in income, and by using the cost basis of your entire portfolio as a benchmark, it’s easy to determine where to invest your accumulated cash. Because a portion of every dollar added to the portfolio is reinvested for income generation, you are sure to maximize your total annually. If Market Value is used for this analysis, you could be pouring too much money into a falling market to the detriment of your long-term income goals.

Profit generation is the facet of market value appreciation which is a natural feature of all securities. To realize a profit, you must be able to sell the securities that most investment strategists (and accountants) want you to marry! Successful investors learn to sell what they love, and the more often (yes, short term), the better. It’s called trading, and it’s not a four-letter word. When you can get to the point where you think of the securities you own as high-quality inventory on the shelves of your personal portfolio boutique, you’ve arrived. You won’t find WalMart charging prices higher than its standard markup, and neither should you. Reduce your exposure to slower moves, and sell your long-held losses at a loss if you have to, and above all, try to get your standard forecast, the Wall Street Journal, to show you. … a portfolio of equity securities that have not yet met their earnings goals and are probably in negative Market Value territory because you sold the winners and replaced them with new inventory … confuses earning power! That way, you’ll find a diverse set of earners, penalized for following their natural (this year) trends, with lower prices, which will help you increase portfolio productivity and overall cash flow. If you’re seeing big overshoots, you’re not managing the portfolio properly.

Growth in Working Capital (total portfolio cost basis) only occurs, and at a rate that will be somewhere between the average return on the Income Securities in the portfolio and the total return on the Equity portion of the portfolio. It will actually be higher with larger Income allocations as trading more often generates a higher rate of return than safer positions in Income allocations. But, and this is a big but, don’t forget when you get close to retirement, trading profits are not guaranteed and the risk of loss (although reduced with a reasonable selection process) is greater than with Income Security. So as you get closer to retirement, the Asset Allocation goes from a higher Equity ratio to a lower one.

So is there really such a thing as an Income Portfolio that needs to be managed? Or are we really just dealing with an investment portfolio whose Family Allowance needs to be adjusted occasionally as we approach the time in life when it has to provide the boat… and the gas money to run it? By using Cost Basis (Working Capital) as the number that needs to grow, by accepting trading as a viable, even conservative, approach to portfolio management, and by focusing on income growth rather than ego, all of this makes retirement investing significantly less expensive. it’s scary. So now you can focus on changing the tax code, reducing health care costs, saving Social Security, and spoiling the grandchildren.

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